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The book, in workbook binding, has a very attractive cover. Students can write the answers in the book or do so on their own paper. The book is consumable. The charts and maps, in most instances, are well done. There is a map of Madrid on page thirty-five which is too small and is difficult to read.
The point on the chart and article on pages fifteen, sixty-three and sixty-four is quite small and bothersome to the eye.
Most pages, however, are quite easy to read and should be easy to follow. To further enhance the teaching of their book, Young and Wolf have given Spanish teachers an impressive Teacher's Manual which offers pre-reading, reading, and post-reading activities to facilitate the teaching of each reading selection. Ben Davis High School. This book undertakes a study of Spanish motion verbs from the perspective of Lexico-Grammar, a grammatical theory based on work of Zellig Harris and Maurice Gross.
The first chapter introduces Lexico-Grammar, while the remaining three chapters are devoted to verbs of motion. These latter chapters make a clear empirical contribution to the study of motion verbs and, more generally, to the study of infinitival complements. It is less clear what the theoretical contribution is, nor is it clear exactly how analyses within Lexico-Grammar might differ from generative analyses of the same phenomena. I will begin by discussing the latter chapters, and then return to the theoretical introduction.
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Chapter 2 discusses intransitive verbs of motion, as used in the following examples:. Jorge viene a cenar. Jorge sale para hablar con Usted. A good deal of this chapter is devoted to demonstrating that subordinate clauses introduced with the preposition a have the status of subcategorized arguments, while those introduced with para are non-arguments. Thus, Lamiroy argues against the traditional practice of not distinguishing between these types of complementation. Her arguments are solid, and present a good deal of interesting data.
Lamiroy limits her discussion to cases where this phenomenon involves verbs of motion, e. As with the previous chapter, a good deal of interesting data are presented.
Chapter 4 is perhaps the most interesting one. It deals with transitive motion verbs, e. Lamiroy notes that these verbs are causatives in that they imply that their subject causes the object to perform the event expressed by the embedded clause. This is a valid and important point; the rest of the chapter presents a number of syntactic properties of these constructions that should be of great interest to anyone researching the syntax of causative constructions.
There is one issue I would like to raise, however. Lamiroy seems to adopt an analysis similar to the generative Clause Reduction account of causative constructions. In particular, she assumes that causative movement verbs involve the reduction of two clauses into a monoclausal structure. However, she does not provide data that illustrate any of the classic mono-clausal phenomena associated with reduced constructions.
In fact, she argues that one of these mono-clausal phenomena, clitic climbing, is often disallowed in these constructions:. Jorge manda a inspeccionar las obras a Eva. Jorge las manda a inspeccionar p. Nevertheless, Lamiroy's conclusion regarding the possibility of clitic climbing is not completely valid. In constructions that normally allow clitic climbing, it is generally impossible for an embedded direct object clitic to cliticize to the matrix verb when the embedded subject is overt, but does not itself cliticize. This, and not the general failure of clitic climbing with causative motion verbs, could be the source of 6b 's ungrammaticality.
In fact, if the embedded subject is a clitic, or involves clitic doubling, many speakers allow the direct object clitic to climb:. Thus, there may be support for the claim that constructions like 6a have mono-clausal properties. Chapter 1 provides a sketch of Lexico-Grammatical theory.
The chapter does not provide a clear description of the goals of this framework. On the one hand, one gets the impression that Lexico-Grammar is just like generative grammar, except it takes the contribution of individual lexical items more seriously although proponents of generative approaches could point to the MIT Lexicon Project as an indication that generative theory does take the lexicon equally seriously.
If this is the case, then it is hard to see how Lexico-Grammar rises above a descriptive device. Since this framework is not well-known, perhaps more space should have been devoted to a more complete discussion of its theoretical agenda. Nevertheless, this book provides a wealth of thought-provoking data for anyone interested in complementation in Spanish. Florida International University. The authors have designed the text for advanced upper-division or graduate students whose career plans include translation, teaching Spanish to English speakers or English to speakers of Spanish.
Since it is so well organized, this text would serve as an excellent resource for high school teachers. Chapter 28 which includes analysis of the ser-estar and saber-conocer contrasts will also prove useful to every classroom teacher searching for new examples to use in the construction of exercises, quizzes and exams. An innovative feature of the text is the abundance of exercises which are divided into three categories based on level of difficulty and the requirements of teacher or student.
This is another positive aspect of the manual which increases its use as a teacher resource. This is somewhat unfortunate since the authors have characterized the exercises as the most salient feature of the manual. The Spanish words a reincluded in one of the appendices.
Except for the presentation of a few essential phonetic items, the text deals exclusively with syntax. As the title suggests, each element is presented in terms of the contrasts between the two languages. While such a comparative analysis does not lend itself to actual communicatory skill development in a proficiency oriented classroom, all teachers can benefit from a clearer understanding of inter-lingual contrasts.
The problem areas revealed through contrastive analysis provide a framework within which teachers can better comprehend and evaluate the difficulties their students encounter in acquiring a second language. This text is a chamaleon-like manual which lends itself to a remarkable variety of uses and is recommended as a resource text for teachers at all levels.
Each of the thirty-six units is written simply and directly. The organization of the manual clearly reflects the desire of the authors is to provide an accessible and eminently useful inventory of the major grammatical contrasts between English and Spanish. Montana State University.